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Just for Fun




Thieves respect property; they merely wish the property to become their property that they may more perfectly respect it.

G, K. Chesterton


у


ROLE-PLA Y Let's Do Justice!

Work in pairs. Each pair should coTtsist of a 'criminal' (choose your role from the list above) and a 'defence lawyer\ STEP 1. The lawyer questions his client (the criminal) and

finds out all the circumstances of the crime, STEP 2, The lawyer delivers a speech trying to establish his

client's innocence, STEP 3. The rest of the group ~ the jurors deliberate the

evidence and bring in a verdict,


Chapter II. Crime and Punishment 30

-~~ UNIT 3. THlTcAUSES OF CRIME

TASK 1. Match the following headings with the sections of the text below:

p Psychological and psychiatric theories

0 Biological theories

* Multiple causation theory

e Social environment theories

0 Theological and ethical theories

0 Climatic theory

(1) No one knows why crime occurs. The oldest theory, based on theology.and ethics, is that criminals are perverse persons who deliberately commit crimes or who do so at the instigation of the devil or other evil spirits- Although this idea has been discarded by modern criminologists, it persists among immfonncd people and provides tho rationale for the harsh punishments still meted out to criminals in many parts of the world.

(2) Since the 18th century, various scientific theories have been advanced to explain crime. One of the first efforts to explain crime on scientific, rather than theological, grounds was made at the end of the 18ш century by the German physician and anatomist Franz Joseph Gall, who tried to establish relationships between skull structure and criminal proclivities. This theory, popular during the 19th century, is now discredited and has been abandoned. A more sophisticated theory — a biological one — was developed late in the 19th century by the Italian criminologist Cesare Lombroso, whn asserted thai crimes were committed by persons who are born with certain recognizable hereditary physical trails. Lombroso's theory was disproved early in the 20th century by the i/Mtish criminologist Charles Goring. Goring's comparative study of jailed criminals and law-abiding persons established that so-called criminal types, with innate dispositions to crime, do not exist Recent scientific studies have tended to confirm Goring's findings. Some investigators still hold, however, that specific abnormalities of the brain and of the endocrine system contribute to a person's inclination toward criminal activity.

(3) Another approach to an explanation of crime was initiated by the French political philosopher Montesquieu, who attempted to relate criminal behavior to natural, or physical environment


40 Just English. Английский для юристов

His successors have gathered evidence tending to show thai crimes agaiost person, such as Immidde, are relatively more numerous in warm climates, whereas crimes agamst property, such ^j.s theft, are more frequent in cuider regions. Other studies seem to indicate that the incidence of crime declines in direct ratio to drops in barometric pressure, to increased humidity, and to higher temperature.

(4) Many prominent criminologists of the 13th century,
particularly those associated with the Socialist movement, attributed
crime zimmly to the influence of poverty; They pointed unt that
persons who are unable to provide adequately for themselves ami
their families through normal legal channels are frequently driven
to theft, burglary, prostitution, and other offences. The incidence
of crime especially tends to'rise in times of widespn^d
unemployment Present-day criminologists take a broader and
deeper view; they place the hlame for must crimes on the whole
range of environmental conditions associated with poverty. The
living conditions of the poor, particularly of those in slums, are
characterized by overcrowding, hick of privacy, inadequate play
space and recreational facilities, and poor sanitation. Such conditions
engender feelings of deprivation and hopelessness and are
conducive to crime as a means of escape. ТЫ.' feeling is encouraged
by the example set by those who have escaped to what appears to
be the better way of life made possible by crime.

Some theorists relate the incidence of crime to the general state of a culture, especially the impact of economic crises, wars, and revolutions and the general sense of insecurity and uprootedness to which these forces give rise. As a society becomes more unsettled and its people more restless and fearful of the future, the crime rate tends to rise. Tins is particularly true of juvenile crime, as the experience of the United States since World War П has made evident,

(5) The final major group of theories are psychological and
psychiatric. Studies by such 20lh century investigators as the
American criminologist Bernard Glueck and the British psychiatrist
William Healy have indicated that about one-fourth of a typical
convict population is psychotic, neurotic, or emotionally unstable
and another one-fourth is mentally deficient. These emotional and
mental conditions do not automatically make people criminals, but
do, it is believed, make them more prone to criminality. Recent
studies of criminals have thrown further Sight on the kinds of
emotional disturbances that may lead to criminal behavior.


Chapter II. Crime and Punishment



(6) Since the mid-20th century, the notion that crime can be explained by any single theory has fallen into disfavour among investigators. Instead, experts incline to so-called multiple factor,or multiple causationtheories. They reason that crime springs froma multiplicity of conflicting and converging influences— biological, psychological, cultural, economic and political. The multiple causation explanations seem moru credible than the earlier, simpler theories. An understanding of the causes of crime is still elusive, however, because the interrelationship of causes is difficult to determine,

TASK 2. Writs down Russian equivalents for the words and expressions in bold type, given in the text above,

TASK 3. Find in the texts above the English equivalents for the following words and expressions and reproduce the context in which they were used:

1, мошенничество

2. кража

3. убийство

4, кража со взломом

Г), сравнительный анализ преступников и законопослушных граждан

6. соотнести преступное поведение с факторами окружаю­щей среды

7. преступления против человека

8. преступления против собственности
0. совершать преступления умышленно

10. некоторые узнаваемые наследуемые чорты П. выдающиеся ученые-криминологи

12. ряд условий

13. уровень преступности

14. быть склонным к преступной деятелыюсти

15. пролить свет на проблему

16. теория многообразия факторов

17. достоверная теория

TASK 4. Find in the text all word combinations with the following words:

<* research * study # theory



Just English. Английский для юристов


Reproduce the contexts in which they were used. Make up your own sentences with these words.

TASK 5. Answer the following questions:

L What concepts formed the basis of the earliest criminological theories?

2. How did the biological theories develop?

3. What was Montesquieu's approach to causes of crime?

4. What views on crime predominated in the 19Lh century?

5. How did criminological theories develop in the 20lh century?

6. What is the relationship between the mental and emotional state of a person and his or her inclinatiuiis to crime?

7. What are the latest views on the causes of crime?

TASK 6. Render the following passage into English paying special attention to the words and expressions in bold type:

Преступность и ее причины

Преступность и ее причины могут быть изучены на индиви­дуальном, групповом и социальном уровнях. Им, следовательно, могут быть даны психологическое, социологическое и философ­ское объяснения. Эти объяснения не противоречат друг другу, а дополняют одно другое, позволяя проанализировать причины преступности с различных сторон.

Рассматривая эту проблему на индивидуальном уровне, можно обозначить причины преступности как конфликт поведе­ния человека с социальной средой.

Когда человек попадает в проблемную ситуацию, он часто не находит решения возникших сложностей и выбирает преступ­ный путь,

Но возникает естественный вопрос: а почему личность фор­мируется таким образом? И почему возникают проблемные ситу­ации, ставящие человека перед трудным выбором? Ответить на эти вопросы невозможно, если не обратиться к изучению совре­менного общества. При этом очевидно, что в качестве причин преступности выступают и социально-экономические, и полити­ческие, и духовные факторы, тесно связанные друг с другом-

Обстоятельствами, ведущими к преступному поведению, считаются; антиобщественное поведение родителей; алкоголизм


Chapter II, Crime and Punishment 43

и нервно-психические заболевания родителей; низкий уровень культуры в семье.

Негативными особенностями личности и поведения считакуг-ся; прежняя судимость; совершение иных противоправных пос­тупков; негативное отношение к нравственным ценностям; злоб­ность, грубость и мстительность; пьяиство> употребление нарко­тиков, азартные игры.

Итак, после того, как мы узнали о криминологии достаточно многое, нетрудно заключить, что преступность может возникнуть на основе взаимодействия личности и социальной среды.

DEBATE

All criminals are perverse people!

Prepare your arguments for or against the statement above. Use the active vocabulary from the Unit, Divide into two groups — p?-o and con, and conduct a debate. Appoint the 'Chair' of the debate who will give the floor to the speakers of both teams.

UNIT 4. PUNISHMENT BRAINSTORM

in your opinion* what does 'punishment* mean? What kinds of punishment do you know?

TASK 1, Read the text and write down Russian equivalents for the words in bold type:

Punishment describes the imposition by some authority of a deprivation — usually painful — on a person who has violated a law, a rule, or other norm. When the violation is of the criminal law of society there is a formal process of accusation and proof followed by imposition of a sentence by a designated official,



Just English. Английский для юристов


usually a judge, informally, any organised group — most typically the family, may punish perceived wrongdoers,

Because punishment is both painful and guilt producing, its application qalls for a justification. In Western culture, four basic justifications have been given: retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, and incapacitation, Most penal historians note a gradual trend over the last centuries toward more lenient sentences in Western countries. Capital and corporal punishment widespread in the early 19th century, are seldom invoked by contemporary society. Indeed, in the United States corporal punishment as such appears Lu be contrary to the 8lb Amendment's restrictions on cruel and unusual punishment Yet the rate of imprisonment in the United States appears to be growing. Furthermore, since the mid-1970s, popular and professional sentiment has taken a distinctly punitive turn and now tends to see retribution and incapacitation — rather than rehabilitation — as the goals of criminal punishment

Criminal sentences ordinarily embrace four basic modes of punishment. In descending order of severity these are: incarceration, community supervision, fine, and restitution. The death penalty is now possible only for certain types of atrocious murders and treason.

Punishment is an ancient practice whose presence in modern cultures may appear to be out of place because it purposefully inflicts pain. In the minds of most people, however, it continues to find justification.

TASK 2. Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions:

• authority, authorities * justification

• community supervision • rehabilitation

• deterrence . restitution

• f^e # retribution

• incapacitation « sentence

• incarceration

TASK 3. The word PUNITIVEhas the following meanings in Russian:

1} связанный с применением наказания

punitive article — статья, устанавливающая уголовную санк­цию


Chapter II. Crime and Punishment 45

2) карательный; штрафной

punitive action — карательная мера, карательная акция

Match the following English expressions with their Russian equivalents:

 

I) punitive sentencing а) карательная мера
2) punitive institution b) карательное воздействие
3) punitive justice с) карательное правосудие
4) punitive law d) карательное учреждение
5) punitive legislation е) лишение свободы как кара
6) punitive measure за совершенное преступление
7) punitive treatment f) уголовное законодательство
  g) уголовный закон

TASK 4, Point out the main ideas of the text in Task 1. Make a list of them.

TASK 5. Work in teams and write down false statements based on the text in Task 1 (no fewer than 6 statements). Present them in class. Use the information from the text in Task 1 to refute the other team's false statements.

TASK 6. Complete the following text with the words and expressions from the box:







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