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HowYou Were Chosen




Your name was selected at random from voter registration records and placed on a list of potential jurors. Next, your answers to the Questionnaire for Jurors were evaluated to make sure that you were eligible for jury service and were not exempt from service. To be eligible, you must be over 13 years of age, a citizen of the United States, £ resident of the county in which you are to serve as a juror, able to communicate in the English language and if you have been convicted of a felony, you must have had your civil rights restored- People who meet these requirements may be excused from


114 Just English. Английский для Еористов

jury service if they have illnesses that would interfere with their ability to do a good job, would suffer great hardship if required to serve, or are unable to serve for some other reason.

You are here because you were found to be eligible for jury duty and were able to serve. You are now part of the 'jury pool', the group of people from which trial juries are chosen.

TASK 3. Find in the text above the English equivalents for the following words and expressions:

1. показания

2. анкета для присяжных

3. списки избирателей

4. предубеждение

5. судебное разбирательство

6. вопросы права

7. фонд, резерв присяжных

8. сохранять объективность в подходе к вопросу, делу

9. освобождать от обязанностей присяжного

 

10. подходить для службы в жюри присяжных

11. заслушивать показания

12. исключать из состава присяжных

13. восстанавливать в гражданских правах

14. тщательно и беспристрастно рассматривать дело

15. удовлетворять требованиям

TASK 4. Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions:

в fellow citizens » evidence « to decide the law ф to decide the facts ■ courtroom

• common sense

• prejudice

• to be impartial

TASK 5. Answer the following questions:

1. What is the job of a juror?

2. What is the job of a judge?


Chapter IV, Fair Trial: the Jury_________________ 115

3. What qualities should a good juror have?

4. What requirements should one meet to be eligible for jury service?

5. What are the reasons for a person to be excused from jury service?

6. What is a jury pool?

TASK 6. Translate the following text into English, paying special attention to the words and expressions in bold type:

Требования, предъявляемые к присяжным заседателям,

В список присяжных заседателей не включаются лица: л не внесенные в списки избирателей; » не достигшие к моменту составления списков присяжных заседателей возраста 25 лет;

в имеющие неснятую или непогашенную судимость; е признанные судом недееспособными.

Из списков присяжных заседателей исключаются:

* лица, не владеющие языком, на котором ведется судопро­изводство в данной местности:;

* немые, глухие, слепые и другие лица, являющиеся инва­лидами;

о военнослужащие;

е судьи, прокуроры, следователи, адвокаты, нотариусы;

* священнослужители.

TASK 7. The word EVIDENCE has the following meanings in Russian:

1) доказательство

, evidence at law — судебные доказательства

2) показания

evidence for the defence — показания свидетелей защиты

3) улики

evidence of crime — улики

4) свидетельство

written evidence — письменное свидетельство


116 Just English. Английский для юристов

Match the following English expressions with their Russian equivalents:

 

1. evidence in the case а) вещественное доказательство
2. evidence on oath b) давать показания, представить
3. to give/offer/introduce/ produce evidence дока зательства с) доказательства вины; улики
4. to plant evidence d) доказательства или показания
5. to weigh evidence по делу
6. to withhold evidence е) доказательства, показания, полученные с нарушением
7, evidence wrongfully закона
obtained f) доказательство из первых рук
8- evidence of guilt g) заключение эксперта
9, circumstantial evidence h) косвенное доказательство
10- conclusive/ decisive I) лжесвидетельство
evidence  
11. expert evidence j) ложное доказательство, показание
12. false evidence к) недостаточное доказательство
13. first hand evidence 1) неопровержимое
14. insufficient evidence доказательство
15. irrefutable evidence т) окончательное, решающее доказательство
16. perjured evidence п) оценить доказательства
17. physical evidence о) показания под присягой
  р) скрыть доказательства
  q) сфабриковать доказательства

Chapter IV. Fair Trial; the Jury Ц 7

TASKS. Study the following Juror's Excusal/Postponement Form. Imagine that you _.гя a juror not milling to perform your jury duty. Fill in the form stating your own reasons:


       
 
   
 


JUROR'S EXCUSAL/POSTPONEMENT FORM

You may be disqualified / exempt from Jury Duty for the reasons listed below by checking the appropriate item, or enter your request in the area provided

DISQUALIFICATIONS FOR JURY DUTY

П Convicted Felon (Civil Rights not Restored)

□ Presently under prosecution for a crime

D Not a resident of__________________________ County

D Not a citizen of the United States

You may be EXEMPT from Jury Duty for reasons listed below

О 70 or older and wish to be temporarily excused П 70 or older and wish to be permanently excused П Physically unable (Doctor's note must be submitted) О Parent, not employed full time with custody of child under age 6

□ Expectant Mother

L_ Served on Jury Duty in past 12 months П Full-time law enforcement officer

I request to be excused or postponed because

Any request for excusal or postponement must be received at least 7 days prior to your report date. You will be notified by mail regarding the status of your request and postponement date, if applicable.

Signature Phone number (Home and Work)


118 Just English. Английский для юристов

UNIT 3. SELECTION OF THE TRIAL JURY

TASK 1. Read the following text and write down Russian equivalents for the words and expressions in bold type:

The first step in the selection of the trial jury is the selection
of a 'jury panel3. When you are selected for a jury panel you will
be directed to report, along with other panel members, to a
courtroom in which a case is to be heard once a jury is selected,
The judge assigned to that case will tell you about the case and
will introduce the lawyers and -—----------------------------------------------------------------------- ч

JUROK'S OATH I do solemnly, sincerely and truly declare and affirm that I will faithfully try the defendant and give a true verdict according to the evidence

the people involved in the case.

You will also take an oath, by

which you promise to answer

all questions truthfully.

Following this explanation of

the case and the taking of the

oath, the judge and the

lawyers will question you and

the other members of the panel to find out if you have any personal

interest in it, or any feelings that might make it hard for you to be

impartial This process of questioning is called Voir Dire, a phrase

meaning "to speak the truth",

Many of the questions the judge and lawyers ask you during Voir Dire may seem very personal to you, but you should answer them completely and honestly. Remember that the lawyers are not trying to embarrass you, but are trying to make sure that members of the jury do not have opinions or past experiences which might prevent them from making an impartial decision.

During Voir Dire the lawyers may ask the judge to excuse you or another member of the panel from sitting on the jury for this particular case. This is called challenging a juror. There are two types of challenges. The first is called a challenge for cause, which means that the lawyer has a specific reason for thinking that the juror would not be able to be impartial. For example, the case may involve the theft of a car. If one of the jurors has had a car stolen and still feels angry or upset about it, the lawyer for the person accused of the theft could ask that the juror be excused for that reason There is no limit on the number of the panel members that the lawyers may have excused for cause.

The second type of challenge is called a peremptory challenge, which means that the lawyer does not have to state a reason for


Chapter IV, Fair Trial: the Jury



asking that the juror be excused. Like challenges for cause, peremptory challenges are designed to allow lawyers to dn their best to assure that their clients will have a fair trial Unlike challenges for cause, however, the number of peremptory challenges is limited.

Please try not to take offence if you are excused from serving on a particular jury. The lawyer who challenges you is not suggesting that you lack ability or honesty, merely that there is some doubt about your impartiality because of the circumstances of the particular case and your past experiences- If you are excused, you will either return to the juror waiting area and wait to be called for another panel or will be excused from service, depending on the local procedures in the county in which you live.

:1л:-±ЖкШш
V*

Those jurors who have not been challenged become the jury for the case. Depending on the kind of case, there will be either six or twelve

jurors. The judge may also allow selection of one or more alternate jurors, who will serve if one of the jurors is unable to do so because of illness or some other reason.

TASK 2. Find in the text above the English equivalents for the following words and expressions;

L состав присяжных

2. отвод присяжного

3. мотивированный отвод

4. немотивированный отвод

5. присяжные, подобранные для судебного рассмотрения дела

6. присяжный запасного состава

7. принять присягу

8. принять беспристрастное решение

9. указать причину отвода

10. явиться в зал заседания

TASK 3. Answer the following questions:

L What is the aim of Voir Dire?

2. What does the procedure of Voir Dire consist of?

5 - 6660



Just English. Английский для юристов


3. What is challenging a juror?

4. What arc the types of challenge?

5- Why is the number of peremptory challenges limited?

6, What aims do lawyers pursue while challenging jurors?

7, What is the number of jurors sitting on a case?

8, Who are alternate jurors?

TASK 4. The Russian expression СУДЕБНЫЙ ПРОЦЕССhas the

following equivalents in English:

1) litigation — судебный процесс, спор, тяжба

civil litigation — судебный процесс по гражданскому делу

local litigation — тяжба в местном суде

litigation expenses — судебные издержки

issue in the litigation — предмет судебного спора

2) lawsuit — судебный процесс, судебное дело, иск, тяжба,
правовой спор,судебный спор, судебное разбирательство
to be cast in lawsuit — проиграть судебный процесс
party to a lawsuit — сторона по делу

to file a lawsuit — подать иск

3) suit — судебный процесс, иск, преследование по суду,
судебное дело, судебная тяжба, судопроизводство

to win / to lose a suit — выиграть / проиграть судебный процесс

to mount a suit — предъявить иск

to press a suit — оказывать давление на ход судебного про­цесса

to bring a suit — возбудить дело, тяжбу

4) trial — судебный процесс, судебное разбирательство,
слушание дела

open(-court) trial — открытый судебный процесс

to conduct / hold a trial — вести судебный процесс

staged trial — инсценированный судебный процесс

trial by jury — рассмотрение дела с участием присяжных

to bring to trial / to put (up) on trial / to place on trial — предать

суду to face trial — предстать перед судом to stand trial — отвечать перед судом civil trial — гражданское судопроизводство criminal trial -— уголовное судопроизводство


Chapter IV. Fair Trial: the Jury 121

preliminary trial — предварительное слушание дела

case for trial/ trial case — дело, подлежащее судебному рас»

смотрению case on trial — дело на стадии судебного рассмотрения delay in trial — задержка судебного разбирательства, от-

срэчка судебного разбирательства trial docket / trial list — список дел к слушанию investigation at the trial — судебное следствие party to a trial — сторона в процессе; участник процесса

5) cause — судебный процесс, судебное дело, тяжба

legal cause — судебное дело, законное основание

major /minor cause — дело о тяжком/ малозначительном правонарушении

costs in the cause — судебные издержки, издержки в про­цессе

cause list — список дел к слушанию

side in к cause — сторона по делу

6) controversy — гражданский судебный процесс, правовой
спор, судебный спор

legal controversy — правовой спор; судебный спор

to decide a controversy — решить спор

party in controversy — сторона в судебном споре

7) process — судебный процесс, процедура, порядок,
производство дел, судопроизводство, процессуальные
нормы

investigation process — процесс расследования

8) proceeding(s) — судебный процесс, рассмотрение дела
в суде, судебное разбирательство, судебная процедура,
производство по делу, судопроизводство

to take criminal proceeding(s) — возбудить уголовное пре­следование civil proceeding(s) — гражданское производство criminal proceeding(s) — уголовное судопроизводство forfeiture proceeding^} — процедура конфискации

Find in the list above the English equivalents for the following Russian expressions:

1. судебные издержки

2, сторона по делу

5*


122 Just English, Английский для юристип

3. тяжба

4. проиграть / выиграть судебный процесс

5. возбудить дело

TASK 5. Translate the following text into English, paying special attention to the words and expressions in bold type:

Формирование скамьи присяжных заседателей включает;

* составление списков присяжных заседателей,

« приглашение fix в судебное заседание,

о выявление судьей объективности и непредвзятости при

рассмотрении данного дела у приглашенных в суд при­сяжных заседателей, 9 использование сторонами права на мотивированный и не-

мотивированный отвод присяжных заседателей. В результате остаются 12 основных и 2 запасных присяж­ных заседателя.

От исполнения обязанностей присяжного заседателя по кон­кретному делу председательствующий судья освобождает вся­кого, чья объективность вызывает обоснованные сомнении вследствие оказанною на это лицо незаконного воздействия, на­личия у него предвзятого мнения, знания им обстоятельств дела из непроцессуальных источников, а также по другим причинам.


ПРИСЯГА

После того, как коллегия присяжных заседателей сформиро­вана к избран их стар­шина, председатель­ствующий судья при­водит присяжных за­седателей к присяге,


"Клянусь исполнять свои обязаннос­ти честно и беспристрастно, прини­мать во внимание все рассмотрен­ные в суде доказательства, доводы, обстоятельства дела и ничего, кроме них, разрешать дело по своему внут­реннему убеждению и совести» как подобает свободному гражданину и справедливому человеку", (Россия)


TASK 6. Complete the following text using the words from the box:

The Jury in Britain

criminal offence; acquitted; challenge; civil cases; convicted; disqualified; liable for; ownership of property; randomly; right of appeal; evidence; judiciary; verdict; unanimous; undertake


Chapter IV. Fair Trial: the Jury



Trial by jury is an ancient and important feature of English

justice. Although it has declined in_______________________ i (except for libel

and fraud), it is the main element in criminal trials in the crown

court- Jury membership was once linked to the___________________________________________

________________________ , which resulted in male and middle-class

dominance. But now most categories of British residents are obliged
to , , ._.. jury service when summoned.

Before the start of a criminal trial in the crown court, 12 jurors

are chosen from a list of some 30 names_______________________________ selected from

local electoral registers- They listen to the ________ at the trial

and give their verdict on the facts, after having been isolated in a separate room for their deliberations. In England, Wales and

Northern Ireland the_________________________ may be 'guilty1 or 'not guilty1,

the latter resulting in acquittal. Until 1967 the verdict had to be

______________ . But now the judge will accept a majority verdict after

the jury has deliberated for more than two hours provided that, in the normal jury of 12 people, there are no more than two dissenters.

In Scotland the jury's verdict may be 'guilty', 'not guilty5 or 'not proven', the accused is _____________ if either of the last two

verdicts is given. As a general rule no one may be _____________

without corroborated evidence from at least two sources,

If the jury acquits the defendant, the prosecution has no

_____________________ and the defendant cannot be tried again for the

same offence.

A jury is independent of the . Any attempt to

interfere with a jury is a_______________________________ . Potential jurors are put

on a panel before the start of the trial In England and Wales the

prosecution and the defence may_____________________________ individual jurors on

the panel, giving reasons for doing so. In Scotland the prosecution or defence may challenge up to three jurors without reason. In Northern Ireland each defendant has the right to challenge up to 12 potential jurors without giving a'reason.

People between the ages of 18 and 70 (65 in Scotland) whose names appear on the electoral register, with certain exceptions,

are____________________ jury service and their names are chosen at

random, Ineligible people include, for example, judges and people
who have within the previous ten years been members of the tegal
profession or the.police, prison or probation services. People
convicted of certain offences within the previous ten years cannot
serve on a jury. Anyone who has received a prison sentence of five
years or more is for life.



Just English. Английский для юристов


г —.............. "........... "............... """---------- ~~~~ ■—-

Just for Fun

Jury — a group of twelve men who, having Ued to the judge about their hearing, health, and business engagements, have failed to fool him.

Henry Lewis Mencken

UNIT 4. IN THE COURTROOM

TASK 1. Read the following text and write doom Russian equivalents for the words and expressions in bold type:

The number of the days you work as a juror and your working hours depend on the jury selection system in the county in which you live. Working hours may also be varied by the judge to accommodate witnesses coming from out of town or for other reasons.

Regardless of the length of your working day, one thing that may strike you is the amount of waiting. For example, you may have to wait a long while before you are called for a jury panel. You also may be kept waiting in the jury room during trial while the judge and the lawyers settle a question of law that has come up.

This waiting may seem like a waste of time to you and also may make it seem as if the court system isn't working very well. In reality, however, there are good reasons for the waiting you do both before and during trial,

Your having to wait before trial is important for the efficient operation of the system, Because there are many cases to be heard and because trials are expensive, judges encourage people to come to an agreement in their case before triaL Theso agreements, called settlements, can occur at any time, even a few minutes before the trial is scheduled to begin- This means that it is impossible to know exactly how many trials there will be on a particular day or when they will start. Jurors are kept waiting, therefore, so that they are immediately available for the next case that goes to trial.

Your waiting during trial helps assure the fairness of the proceedings, You will remember that the jurors decide the facts and that the judge decides the law. If you are sent out of the


Chapter IV. Fair Trial; the Jury


12Г)


courtroom during trial, it is probably because a legal issue has come up that must be decided before more evidence can be presented to you. You are sent out because the judge decides that yuu shnuld not hear the discussion about the law, because it might interfere with your ability to decide the facts in an impartial way. Sometimes the judge will explain why you were sent out, but sometimes he may not be able to do so. Please be assured, however, that these delays during trial» explained or not, are important to the fairness of the trial-

In any case, judges and personnel do whatever they can to minimize the waiting before and during trial. Your understanding is appreciated,

TASK 2, Answer the following questions:

1. What does a juror's working day depend cm?

2. What is a settlement?

3. When and why are jurors sent out of the courtroom during trial?

Courtroom Personnel

In addition to the lawyers and the judge, three other people will play an important role in the trial. The court reporter, who sits close to the witnesses and the judge, puts down every word that is spoken during the trial and also may record the proceedings on tape. The clerk, who sits right below the judge, keeps track of all documents and exhibits and notes down important events in the trial The bailiff helps to keep the trial running smoothly. The jury is in the custody of the bailiff, who sees to the jurors comfort and convenience and helps them if they are having any problems related to jury service.

TASK 3. Find in the text above the English equivalents for the following words and expressions:

1, судебный секретарь

2, вещественное доказательство

3, вести магнитофонную запись

4, судебный пристав

5, протоколист суда



Just English, Английский для юрпетив


 



 


TASK 4. Look at the picture of an American courtroom. Match the numbers in the picture with the words below:


□ jury

□ court reporter
П judge

□ defendant

D defence attorney

□ witness


D witness stand

□ prosecuting attorney
П bailiff

□ jury box

П judge's bench

□ courtroom


TASK 5. Read the letter of the inmate of San Quentin Prison (USA). Using the picture above, explain why the courtroom layout is described as unfavourable for the defendant in the text:







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