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UNIT 5- KINDS OF CASES
TASK 1. Read the following text and write down Russian equivalents for the words and expressions in bold type:
As a juror, you may sit on a criminalcase, a civil case, or both.
Chapter IV, Fair Trial: the Jury 131
Civil cases are usually disputes between or among private citizens, corporations, governments, government agencies, and other organisations. Most often, the party bringing the suit is asking for money damages for some wrong that has been done. For example, a tenant may sue a landlord for failure to fix a leaky roof, or a landlord may sue a tenant for failure to pay rent People who have been injured may sue a person or a company they feel is responsible for the injury,
The party bringing the suit is called the plaintiff; the party being sued is called the defendant There may be many plaintiffs or many defendants in the same case,
The plaintiff starts the lawsuit by filing a paper called a complaint, in which the case against the defendant is stated, The next paper filed is usually the answer, in which the defendant disputes what the plaintiff has said in the complaint. The defendant may also feel that there has been a wrong committed by the plaintiff, in which case a counterclaim will be filed along with the answer. It is up to the plaintiff to prove the case against the defendant. In each civil case the judge tells the jury the extent to which the plaintiff must prove the case. This is called the plaintiff's burden of proof, a burden that the plaintiff must meet in order to win. In most civil cases the plaintiffs burden is to prove the case by a preponderance of evidence, that is, that the plaintiff's version of what happened in the case is more probably true than not true.
Jury verdicts do not need to be unanimous in civil cases. Only ten jurors need to agree upon a verdict if there are 12 jurors: five-must agree if there are six jurors,
A criminal case is brought by the state or by a city or county against a person or persons accused of having committed a crime The state, city, or ctmnty is called the plaintiff; the accused person is called the defendant. The charge against the defendant is called an information or a complaint- The defendant has pleaded not guilty and you should presume the defendant's innocence throughout the entire trial unless the plaintiff proves the defendant guilty. The plaintiff's burden of proof is greater in a criminal case than in a civil case. In each criminal case? you hear the judge will tell you all the elements of the crime that the plaintiff must prove; the plaintiff must prove each of these elements beyond reasonable doubt before the defendant can be found guilty.
132 Just English. Английский для юристов
In criminal cases the verdict must be unanimous, that is, all jurors must agree that the defendant is guilty in order to overcome the presumption of innocence.
TASK 2. Find in the text above the English equivalents for the following words mid expressions:
I. заявление об обвинении
Я. элемент (состава) преступления
3. презумпция невиновности
4. показания (2)
6. судебное разбирательство (3}
7. частные лица
8. денежная компенсация ущерба
9. единогласное решение присяжных
10. наличие более веских доказательств
II. письменные объяснения, возражения ответчика по делу
13, встречный иск
14, бремя доказывания
15, ответственность за ущерб 18. подать иск / возбудить дело
17. заслушать показания
18. заявить о своей невиновности
TASK 3. Translate the following definitions into Russian:
DEFENDANT — (crim.) person charged with a crime;
(civ.) person or entity against whom a civil action is brought. ACTION — proceeding taken in court synonymous to case, suit,
lawsuit PREPONDEKANCE OF EVIDENCE — the weight of evidence
presented by one side is more convincing to the trier of facts
than the evidence presented by the opposing side. PLAINTIFF — the party who begins an action, complains or sues. COUNTERCLAIM — claim presented by a defendant in opposition
to the claim of the plaintiff COMPLAINT — (crim.) formal written charge that a person has
committed a criminal offence;
(civ.) initial document filed by a plaintiff which starts the claim
against the defendant.
Chapter IV, Fair Trial: the Jury
TASK 4. Match the following English expressions with their Russian equivalents:
TASK 5. The word DEFENDANT has the following meanings in •Russian:
civil defendant — ответчик
bailed defendant — обвиняемый или подсудимый» освобождённый (из-под стражи) под залог
judgement for the defendant — судебное решение в пользу ответчика или подсудимого
representation of defendant — представительство интересов подзащитного или подсудимого
Match the following English expressions with their Russian equivalents:
134 Jast English. Английский дли юристов
TASK б, Answer the following questions:
1. What is a civil case?
2. Who is a plaintiff!
3. Who is a defendant1?' 4- What is a complaint? ft. What is an answer?
6. What is a counterclaim'?
7. What is a burden of proof?
8. What is a criminal case?
9. What is preponderance of evidence!
10. How many jurors are necessary to agree upon the verdict
1L Who is the plaintiff in a criminal case?
12. What is meant by the presumption of innocence?
TASK 7. Study the article beloio and decide the following:
1. What are the names of the plaintiff and the defendant in the lawsuit?
2. What was the issue at the heart of the dispute?
3. What were the claims of both parties?
4. How did the Random House editor describe the manuscript?
5. How did Joan Collins1 attorney buILd up the defence?
6. What was the jury's verdict?
Joan Collins Has Starring Role in Lawsuit
Reuter and Associated Press NEW YORK
British actress Joan Collins made her debut Tuesday in a New York courtroom, battling publishing giant Random House over a multimillion-dollar book contract, Random House is suing Collins, demanding the return of a $1,2 million advance paid to her for manuscripts it claims were unfinished and unpublishable* Collins, best known for playing the scheming Alexis Carrington in the television series Dynasty, has
eountersued for $3.6 million she claims the publishing house still owes her.
Collins said she "felt completely shattered and let down" by the lawsuit- "It has seriously upset my writing career and my reputation,11 she said,
The dispute centered on a simple question: what is a completed manuscript?
Delivering the opening argument for Random House, attorney Robert Callagy said Collins had
Chapter IV. Fair Trial: the Jury
not met the terms of her contract and had to return the advance money. "Miss Collins should be treated like any other person," Callagy said. "If you sign the contract, you must perform/'
Former Random House editor Joni Evans testified that in 1991, when she first read Collins' manuscript, she felt 'alarmed'. "It just wasn't working in any shape or form/1 said Evans, now a literary agent "It was no good- It wasn't grounded in reality. It was dull, primitive and rough. It was cliched in plot"
Collins1 attorney, Kenneth David Burrows, argued that the actress had submitted two complete manuscripts, A Ruling Passion, written in 1991 at her home in Trance, and a second manuscript with the working title Hell Hath No Fury. Thus she had turned in
the required number of words and therefore had complied with the contract. He also said Random House should have provided her with editing and advice but instead it was trying to avoid meeting its obligations. He argued earlier that under the 1990 book deal she was guaranteed the money even if the publisher rejected the book,
Verdict. The jury decided that Collins had completed one manuscript in compliance with her contract. But Random House did not have to pay her for the second manuscript because it was merely a rehashing of the first one and not a separate piece of work. The verdict meant Collins could keep the advance and collect more from Random House, though how much more remained in dispute.
RQLE-PLA Y Is Justice Done?
Role -play the Joan Collins trial
STEP I, Write down the speeches for the opening and closing
arguments of the parties1 attorneys. STEP 2. Role play the trial: 'the lawyers3 deliver their speeches;
'the defendant' testifies in court. STEP 3. The rest of the group — the jurors — deliberate the
evidence and bring in a verdict of their own.
136 Just English. Английский для юристов
It's Interesting to Know
• When Margaret Montgomery of Chicago died in 1959, she
Fields, The will stipulated that Fields was to use the trust income solely for the cats' care and feeding, including such delicacies as pot roast meat If, however, he outlived all the cats, Fields would inherit the trust principal Nine years later the last cat, Fat Nose, died at 20, and Fields, 79, was $15,000 richer.
• Charles Vance Millar, a Canadian lawyer and financier who died a bachelor in 1926, bequeathed the bulk of his fortune to whichever Toronto women gave birth to the largest number of children in the 10 years after his death. Four women eventually tied in the 'stork derby' that followed the publication of his will Each had 9 children, and they shared between them $750,000. A fifth woman who had 10 children was ruled out because 5 were illegitimate.
• One of the world's shortest wills was left by an Englishman named Dickens. Contested in 1906 but upheld by the courts, it read simply; "All for mother".
• A 19ft-*century London tavernkeeper left his property to his wife — on the condition that every year, on the anniversary of his death, she would walk barefoot to the local market, hold up a lighted candle, and confess aloud how she had nagged him. The theme of the confession was that if her tongue had been shorter, her husband's days would have been longer If she failed to keep the appointment, she was to receive no more than 20 pounds a year, just enough to live on. Whether the wife decided to take the bigger bequest or spare herself humiliation is not known
Chapter IV. Fair Trial: the Jury
UNIT 6, STEPS OF THE TRIAL
TASK 1. Read the follouHng text and write doiim Russian equivalents for the words and expressions in bold type:
What Happens During the Trial
Events in a trial usually happen in a particular order, though the order may be changed by the judge. The usual order of events is set out below.
Step 1. Selection of the Jury.
Step 2. Opening Statements. The lawyers for each side will discuss their views of the case that you are to hear and will aJso present a general picture of what they intend to prove about the case. What the lawyers say in their opening statements is not evidence and, therefore, does not help prove their cases,
Step 3. Presentation of Evidence. All parties are entitled to present evidence. The testimony of witnesses who testify at trial is evidence. Evidence may also take the form of physical exhibits, such as a gun or a photograph. On occasion, the written testimony of people not able to attend the trial may also be evidence in the cases you will hear.
Many things you will see and hear during the trial are not evidence. For example, what the lawyers say in their opening and closing statements is not evidence. Physical exhibits offered by the lawyers, but not admitted by the judge, are also to be disregarded, as'is testimony that the judge orders stricken off the record.
Many times during the trial the lawyers may make objections to evidence presented by the other side or to questions asked by the other lawyer. Lawyers are allowed to object to these things when they consider them improper under the laws of evidence. It is up to the judge to decide whether each objection was valid or invalid, and whether, therefore, the evidence can be admitted or the question allowed- If the objection was valid> the judge will sustain the objection. H the objection was not valid, the judge will overrule the objection. These rulings do not reflect the judge's opinion of the case or whether the judge favours or does not favour the evidence or the question to which there has been an objection,
It is your duty as a juror to decide the weight or importance of evidence or testimony allowed by the judge* You are also the sole judge of the credibility oi witnesses, that is, of whether their testimony is believable In considering credibility, you may take into
138 Just English. Английский для юристов
account the witnesses1 opportunity and ability to observe the events about which they are testifying, their memory and manner while testifying, the reasonableness of their testimony when considered in the light of all the other evidence in the case, their possible bias or prejudice, and any other factors that bear on the believability of the testimony or on the importance to be given that testimony.
Step 4. The Instructions, Following presentation of all the evidence, the judge instructs the jury on the laws that are to guide the jury in their deliberations on a verdict. A copy of the instructions will be sent to the jury room for the use of jurors during their deliberations. All documents or physical objects that have been received into evidence will also be sent to the jury room.
Step 5, Closing Arguments. The lawyers in the closing arguments summarize the case from their point of view. They may discuss the evidence that has been presented or comment on the credibility of witnesses- The lawyers may also discuss any of the judge's instructions that they feel are of special importance to their case. These arguments are not evidence.
Step 6. Jury Deliberation. The jury retires to the jury room to conduct the deliberations on the verdict in the case they have just heard. The jury first elects a foreman who will see to it that discussion is conducted in a sensible and orderly fashion, that all issues are fully and fairly discussed, and that every juror is given a fair chance to participate.
When a verdict has been reached, the foreman signs it and informs the bailiff. The jury returns to the courtroom, where the foreman presents the verdict. The judge then discharges the jury from the case,
TASK 2. Find in the text above the English equivalents for the following words und expressions:
1. вступительная речь
2. заключительная речь
3. надёжность свидетеля * 4. зачитать вердикт
5. правомерный протест
6. принять, поддержать протест
7. вычеркнуть из протокола
8. удалиться в комнату для совещаний присяжных
9. совещание присяжных
Chapter IV. Fair Trial: the Jury
10. старшина присяжных
11. свидетельские показания
12. отклонить протест
TASK 3. Answer the following questions:
1. What are the steps of a trial?
2. What can be considered evidence?
3. What is a physical exhibit?
4. What are objections?
5. When can objections be made?
EL Who can sustain or overrule an objection?
7. What does the judge say in the instructions?
8. Who presents closing arguments?
9. What happens during jury deliberations?
TASK A. Render the following text into English paying special attention to the words and expressions given in bold type:
Прежде чем исследованные в предшествующей стадии судебного разбирательства материалы дела будут анализироваться
в совещании присяжных, они обсуждаются в процессе судебных прений, где государственный обвинитель и защитник» используя профессиональные знания и навыки, восстанавливают связь между доказательствами, позволяя судьям от общества сделать свободный выбор между обвинением и оправданием подсудимого.
Позиции обвинения и защиты в суде присяжных строятся не только на основе принципа состязательности;, но и на основе принципа презумпции невиновности: невиновность подсудимого предполагается, а виновность доказывается обвинителем,
Судья вправе прервать речь, возражение или замечание стороны, если в них содержатся:
• сведения, не имеющие прямого отношения к делу;
• обстоятельства, оскорбительные для чьей-либо чести и достоинства;
о данные, не проверенные в ходе судебного следствия; о ссылки на исключенные из дела доказательства;
• сведения о прежней судимости обвиняемого;
Just English. Английский для юристов
« иные обстоятельства, влияющие на объективность присяжных
Судья в своем напутственном слове объясняет присяжным заседателям, что при вынесении вердикта они должны:
* руководствоваться здравым смыслом;
а руководствоваться принципов презумпции невиновности, согласно которому подсудимый не обязан доказывать свою невиновность: бремя доказывания вины подсудимого лежит на государственном обвинителе;
« оценивать исследованные в суде доказательства (показания подсудимого, потерпевшего, свидетелей, заключения экспертов и др.) в их совокупности, согласовывая их одно с другим;
« не принимать во внимание доказательства, вычеркнутые из протокола;
« не воспринимать как доказательства доводы, прозвучавшие в речах сторон.
TASK 5. Translate the following text into Russian:
Verdict, in law, is the pronouncement of the jury upon matters of fact submitted to them for deliberation and determination- In civil cases, verdicts may be either general or special. A general verdict is one in which the jury pronounces generally upon all the issues, in favor of either the plaintiff or the defendant. A special verdict is one in which the jury reviews the facts, but leaves to the court any decisions on questions of law arising from those facts. As a rule, however, special verdicts are not applicable to criminal cases, and in most instances the jury renders a general verdict of "guilty" or "not guilty."
Generally, the jury's verdict must be unanimous. In a number of states, however, the condition of unanimity has been modified, and verdicts can consequently be rendered by a designated majority of the jury. All jury members must be present in court when the verdict is given.
In criminal cases a verdict of acquittal is conclusive upon the prosecution (the state), thus precluding double jeopardy, but the defendant may be tried again in the event the jury cannot reach a decision. The defendant must be present when the verdict is rendered.
Chapter IV. Fair Trial: the Jury
TASK 6. Match the following English expressions with their Russian equivalents:
1) final verdict
2) general verdict
3) special verdict
4) to attain/reach/return/ bring in a verdict
5) unanimous verdict
6) verdict of acquittal
7) verdict of conviction
8) verdict of guilty
9) verdict of non-guilty
11) to agree to/upon a verdict
a) вердикт о виновности
b) вердикт о невиновности
c) вердикт об оправданий
d) вердикт об осуждении
e) вынести вердикт
f) генеральный вердикт, вердикт по существу дела
g) окончательный вердикт
i) прийти к соглашению
относительно вердикта j) вердикт, вынесенный
единогласно к) специальный вердикт (решение присяжными частного вопроса)
TASK 7. Render the following text into English paying special attention to the words and expressions given in bold type:
Вердиктом является решение коллегии присяжных заседателей по поставленным перед ней вопросам, включая основной вопрос о виновности подсудимого. Присяжные выносят вердикт « без постороннего влияния, удалившись в совещательную
комнату; « открытым голосованием, причем никто не вправе воздержаться от принятия решения; » путем единогласного решения, или большинством голосов; * ответы даются по каясдому вопросу отдельно, Руководит совещанием присяжных старшина, который последовательно ставит на обсуждение подлежащие разрешению вопросы, проводит голосование, ведет подсчет голосов.
TASK 8. Revise your knowledge of the work of juries. Fill in the gaps in the following sentences:
1. A juror should keep an open
the trial 2. You become a potential juror after your name is selected
corporations or other organizations. 6. The___________________________________ of jury
doesn't need to be________________________ in civil cases. 7. The______________________
keeps track of all documents and exhibits in trial being the judge's
assistant. 8. The job of a juror is to listen to___________________________________ and to
decide_________________ . 9. One who is engaged in a lawsuit is called a
,10. Process by which a lawyer questions a witness called
is a phrase meaning "to speak the truth". 12. A juror should not be
influenced by sympathy or_____________________________ -13. A juror should not
express his ______________ to other jurors before_____________________________ __________
begin. 14. Formal accusation of having committed a criminal offence
is a__________________ , 15. To be a good juror you should use your
________________ and be 16. The third stage of a trial is
___________________ , 17. When a ___________ has been reached the
judge__________________ the jury from the case. 18. A member of jury
panel must__________________ an_________ promising to answer all questions
truthfully. 19, To be eligible, you must: be ___________________ ,
__________________ , able to________________________ , and if you ever
__________________________ , you must have your__________________________________ .
20. Compromise agreement by opposing parties, eliminating the need for the judge to resolve the controversy is called________________________________________________________________________ .
21. Trier of facte is a_________________ or, in a non-jury trial — a .
22_ People who don't meet certain_______________________________________ may be
_____________ from jury service. 23. Lawyers for each side are allowed
to_____________________ when they consider something done improper
under the ________ of evidence. 24. Attorney who represents the
defendant is a_____________________ . 26. ____________ is any statement made
by a witness under_______________ t________ in legal proceedings. 26. __________________ .
, means that the lawyer doesn't have to state a
__________ _____ for asking the juror to be excused. 27. The party
bringing the suit is called a________________________ ■ 28. The fifth step of a trial
is called_________________________________ , when the lawyers_______________________
the case from, their_________________ of view, 29, The lawsuit is started by
filing a paper called a ___________ - 30. The defendant's innocence
is_____________ unless he is proved_____________________ . 30. It is up to judge to
decide whether each______________________________ is valid or_____________________ ,
31, Following the_________________ of evidence, the judge gives_________________________
to the jurors on the laws that are to guide them in their _________ on
Chapter IV- Fair Trial: the Jury
a___________ • 32. A______________ case is brought by the state or the city
against a person or persons accused of_______________________________ a crime. 33, In
______ __ cases people who have been_____________________ may sue a person or a
company they feel is responsible for , 34. If the defendant
has___________ not guilty, the prosecution must prove his guilt to
overcome the______________________________ ■ 35. The____________________ elected by
the jury should provide that____________________________ is conducted in orderly
fashion. 36._____________________________ is a request by a party to excuse a
specific juror for some reason. 37. The______________________________ in. trial decides
the law, i.e. makes decisions on legal______________________ . 38. Most often in civil
cases the party bringing the _________ is asking for money______________________________ .