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The Infinitive.

Active Passive
Indefinite to V1 to be Ved / 3
Continuous to be Ving -
Perfect to have Ved / 3 to have been Ved / 3
Perfect Continuous to have been Ving -



Indefinite & Continuous Infinitive выражают действия, одновременные с глаголом-сказуемым.

I want to go home!

I wanted to go home then.

I am glad to be speaking with you.

Perfect & Perfect Continuous Infinitive выражают действие, предшествовавшее глаголу-сказуемому.

It is very nice of you to have come here.

I am glad to have spoken with you.


2. Функции инфинитива в предложении.

Инфинитив может выполнять функцию любого члена предложения, кроме сказуемого (оно может входить в составное сказуемое).

а) инфинитив-подлежащее (переводится на русский язык неопределенной формой глагола или отглагольным существительным):

To treat a far advanced case of ulcer is very difficult.

Лечить запущенный случай язвы очень трудно.


To perform bypass surgery in alimentary canal requires skill.

Проведение шунтирования у больных с опухолями желудочно-кишечного тракта требует большого умения.

б) инфинитив – часть составного глагольного сказуемого:

You must follow the doctor’s instructions very carefully.

Вы должны тщательно выполнять указания врача.

You will have to stop smoking.

Вам придется бросить курить.

He agreed to give the patient a consultation.

Он согласился проконсультировать больного.


в) инфинитив – дополнение:

The doctor advised him to stay in bed for two or three days.

Врач посоветовал ему оставаться в постели дня два-три.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЕ: если дополнение выражено сложной формой инфинитива, то оно переводится придаточным предложением и начинается перевод с союзов «что» или «чтобы».

The surgeon asked to be assisted.

Хирург попросил, чтобы ему ассистировали.


г) инфинитив – определение (часто следует за словами the first, the last и т.п.)

The patient to be operated on is a well-controlled diabetic.

Больной, которого будут оперировать, - хорошо компенсированный диабетик.

Our clinic was the first to apply this technique.

Наша клиника была первой, где (в которой)применили эту методику.


д) инфинитив – обстоятельство (переводится обстоятельственным придаточным предложением цели с союзами «чтобы, для того, чтобы»):

To perform such an operation one must be an experienced surgeon.

Для того чтобы выполнить такую операцию, нужно быть опытным хирургом.


I. Translate the sentences into English, paying attention to the Infinitive.

1. To take part in the concert was a real pleasure.

2. To master medicine one must work hard.

3. We had to change the time of our meeting.

4. She wants to accept your offer.

5. He wants to be admitted to the Academy.

6. He is happy to have been admitted to the Academy.

7. There were many interesting things at the lecture to attract our attention.

8. He was the first to learn about it.

9. I am afraid not to see her.

10. He pretended not to hear the question.

11. This is the dose to be taken.

12. I am eager to tell you that I am a second – year student.

13. My duty will be to treat people for different diseases.

14. I arranged everything to be admitted into the Institute.

15. I had to get a certificate of health.

16. Dr. Ivanov asked me to take a seat.

17. Then he wanted to know what my troubles were.

18. After the examination the doctor began to fill in my patient’s card.

19. I always follow the prescribed treatment to be well again as soon as possible.

20. If one doesn’t follow the treatment this may cause serious complications.


II. Fill in “to” where it is necessary.

1. The operation cannot ... be performed today.

2. I asked her not ... take the stitches out.

3. The surgeon asked me not ... worry.

4. Let me ... help you with your work.

5. I don’t know how ... give first aid in this case.

6. You’d better ... take an aspirin. You look bad.

7. We have come ... ask whether there is anything we can ... do.

8. I cannot ... go there now, I have some work ... do.

9. You must make him ... practice an hour a day.

10. I asked mother ... let me ... go to the disco.

11. He is not sure that it can ... be done, but he wants ... try.

12. You are cold. You’d better ... sit near the fireplace.

13. I felt someone ... touch my suppurative wound.

14. Please, help me ... translate it.

15. I like ... carry on experiments. We must ... do it regularly.

16. I would rather ... listen to the radio than ... see this soap opera on TV. – As for me, I prefer ... watch TV. You’d better ... take a radio and ... go for a walk.

17. My brother can ... put dressings very well.

18. We had ... put on our white gowns and caps.

19. May I use ... your telephone?

20. I would rather ... put the fractured bone in plaster of Paris.

21. You look tired. You had better ... go home and have a rest.

22. Do you like ... take part in autopsy?

23. Would you like ...learn how ... use a computer?

24. Would you like ... listen to the lecture about modern methods of treatment?

25. I want to get thinner, so I’d rather ... walk than ... go by car.

26. Would you like ... take part in this competition?

III. Use Perfect Infinitive for previous actions

Model: We are glad to see you.

We are glad to have seen you.

1. She is happy to help you.

2. I am glad to be invited to the party.

3. She is sorry to keep you waiting.

4. I am sorry to trouble you.

5. He is happy to take part in putting dressings.

6. I am happy to cope with the work.

7. She is sorry to miss the lecture.

8. He is happy to help the surgeon.

9. I am sorry not to follow your advice.

10. I am happy to make a correct diagnosis myself.

11. The patient is happy to undergo a course of treatment.

12. I am glad to keep the fever down.

13. The doctor is glad to make the daily round.


IV. Change the subordinate clauses for the Infinitives

Model: He is sorry that he has said it.

He is sorry to have said it.


1. I am glad that I have met you.

2. She is happy that she has found such a nice place to live in.

3. He was happy that he was praised by everybody.

4. He was very proud that he had helped his elder brother.

5. The patient is glad that he has survived the operation.

6. The surgeon is glad that he removed a tumour of the stomach successfully.

7. She is glad that she prevented a fatal outcome.

8. She is sorry that she has to undergo an operation.

9. I am sorry that I have hurt your hand.

10. I am glad that I haven’t caused you any pain.

11. I remembered that I had seen that girl before.

12. She was glad that she had been taken to the theatre.

13. He was glad that he had learned his homework at last.


V. Use Passive Infinitive instead of Active Infinitive

Model 1: We are glad to meet you.

We are glad to be met by you.


1. He agreed to operate on her.

2. I am glad we have cured of this disease.

3. She does not want to ask about it.

4. The child wants to tell the story.

5. It is interesting to meet new people.


Model 2: We must admit him to the hospital

He must be admitted to the hospital.


1. You must rub in this ointment regularly.

2. They must transfuse some more blood.

3. She must give injections.

4. He must follow a strict diet.

5. She must take my blood pressure.


VI. Use the necessary form of the Infinitive

1. He seems (to read) a lot.

2. He seems (to read) now.

3. He seems (to read) since morning.

4. He seems (to read) all the books in the library.

5. I want (to take) you to the operation.

6. I want (to take) to the operation by my father.

7. I hope (to help) my friends.

8. I hope (to help) by my friends.

9. The students seem (to prepare) for the exams well.

10. They seem (to prepare) for the exams now.

11. They seem (to prepare) for the exams for 3 days.

12. They seem (to pass) the exams yesterday.

13. I am glad (to perform) that operation yesterday.

14. She seems (to work) at this problem ever since she came here.

15. I hate (to bother) you, but the students are still waiting (to give) books for their work.

16. He began writing books not because he wanted (to earn) a living. He wanted (to read) and not (to forget).

17. He considers himself lucky (to graduate) from the medical institute and (to work) as a surgeon.

18. They are supposed (to work) at the problem for the last two months.

19. They seemed (to wait) for ages.


VII. Translate into English:

1. Кажется, он очень хочет поступить в институт.

2. Кажется, она окончила мединститут 3 или 4 года назад.

3. Я рада, что мы сейчас проводим этот эксперимент.

4. Я рада, что мы проводили такие эксперименты раньше.

5. Вы должны законспектировать эти лекции.

6. Вы можете справиться с этой работой?

7. Вы должны сделать рентген легких, анализы крови и мочи.

8. Где она? – Она, должно быть, сейчас дежурит.

9. Больные любят, когда их лечат.

10. Я рада, что меня лечили в этой больнице.

11. Она бы хотела, чтобы ее обследовали.

12. Она бы хотела, чтобы ее обследовали раньше.

13. Он хочет, чтобы ему назначили тонизирующее средство.

14. Мне очень жаль, что я пропустила эту интересную лекцию.

15. Она счастлива, что приостановила процесс болезни.

16. Студенты довольны, что им преподавал этот опытный хирург.

17. Больной доволен, что его приняли в областную больницу.

18. Выздоравливающие довольны, что их выписывают.

19. Выздоравливающие были довольны, что их выписали до Нового Года.

20. Мама довольна, что ей выписали это лекарство.

21. Она заставила меня принять это лекарство.

22. Пусть она купит это эффективное лекарство.

23. Я, пожалуй, попарю ноги, а вам бы лучше полежать 2-3 дня в постели.

24. Ребенок не любит принимать рыбий жир, а мама заставляет сына принимать его.

25. Аптекари должны наклеивать этикетки трех цветов на бутылочки и коробочки.

26. Она не любит поступать в больницу.

27. Он рад, что его уже прооперировали по поводу острого аппендицита.

28. Он рад, что остановил обильное кровотечение из раны.

29. Она рада, что сопоставила сломанную кость и наложила гипс сама.

30. Он, кажется, оперирует уже 3 часа.


VIII. Change the sentences, using Infinitive as an attribute:

Model: This is a list of words which must be learnt.

This is a list of words to be learnt.


1. We’ll find someone who will help us if you are busy.

2. The work which must be done by the students includes written translation.

3. He was the first who made a correct diagnosis.

4. This is the article which must be studied thoroughly.

5. He was the first who called in an ambulance.

6. He wished he had someone of whom he could take care.

7. I have nothing definite that I can tell him.

8. It is important that we have all modern equipment.

9. She is the last who will be asked.

10. He is the first who must be operated on.

11. He is the only one among us who gave up smoking.

12. I was the next who spoke on the topic.

13. I was the first who raised this question.

14. She was the second who got an excellent mark.

15. I am the next who will be interviewed.

16. He was the only one who could speak Japanese.


IX . Change the subordinate clauses for Infinitives

Model: He is so old that he cannot work.

He is too old to work.


1. The problem is so difficult that it is impossible to solve it.

2. The patient is so heavy that two nurses can not lift him up.

3. He is so weak that he cannot walk about the room.

4. She is so busy that she cannot talk with you.

5. She was so inattentive that she did not notice the mistake.

6. The rule was so difficult that they did not understand it.

7. The surgeon was so young that he could not perform a complex operation.

8. The gangrene was so big that it was impossible to treat it, so the surgeon amputated the leg.

9. She is so rude that she cannot handle patients properly.

10. He is so old that he cannot survive the operation.


X. Change the subordinate clauses for Infinitives:

Model: The boy had many hobbies which he could enjoy.

The boy had many hobbies to enjoy.


1. Have you got anything that you want to say on this subject?

2. There was nothing that he could do except go home.

3. Is there anybody who will help you with your English?

4. Don’t forget that she has a baby which she must take care of.

5. I have an examination which I must take soon, so I can’t go to the theatre with you.

6. Here is a new brush which you will clean your teeth with.

7. Here are some more facts which will prove that your theory is correct.

8. Here are some tablets which will relieve your headache.

9. Here are some articles which must be translated for tomorrow.

10. I have brought you a book which you can read now, but be sure to return it by Saturday.

11. Soon we found that there was another complication which we had to treat.

12. There are some more patients who will have to be operated on today.

13. These are the drugs that will arrest the bleeding.

14. This is the operation that will prevent a fatal outcome.


XI. Make up sentences according to the model

Model: time / he / come back. – It’s time for him to come back.


1. High time / we / say good-bye to everybody.

2. Time / the children / go to bed.

3. Time / she / put up with his behaviour.

4. High time / they / develop a new model.

5. Time / we / assist in putting dressings.

6. High time / he / speak English fluently.

7. Time / she / choose a profession.

8. High time / he / ring me up.

9. High time / you / know this material.

10. High time / you / understand me.


ХII. Change the sentences, using Infinitive as a modifier of purpose

Model: They sent me to England.

They wanted me to learn English.

a) They sent to England to learn English.

b) They sent me England in order (so as) to learn English.


1. The best students attend a scientific circle. They want to take part in research work.

2. The nurse went to the laboratory. She wanted to get the findings of the analyses.

3. The surgeons went to the scrub-up room. They had to get ready for the operation.

4. My friend went to the chemist’s. She wanted to buy some medicine.

5. We are very attentive. We want to learn a lot in class.

6. I remained there. I wanted to see what would happen.

7. You should know all the facts if you want to understand the importance of this event.

8. He worked hard. He did not want to lag behind the other students.

9. She took the patient’s card. She had to fill it in.

10. A well-know professor has come to Gomel. He has to deliver a lecture to our students.

11. I am reading medical journals. I want to make a report.

12. He went to the polyclinic. He had to X-ray his lungs.

13. She took off her shoes. She didn’t want to make any noise.

14. They are saving money. They want to buy a car.

15. We entered the medical institute. We want to become doctors.

16. He works at the patients’ bedside. He wants to treat them for different diseases.

17. He called me. He wanted to tell that he loved me.

18. He attends a scientific circle. He is eager to become a research worker.

19. We study a lot of subjects. Soon we shall work as doctors at polyclinics and in hospitals of Belarus.

20. I take care of myself. I want to be a healthy person.

21. The body is covered with the skin. It must protect organs against damage and infection.

22. She follows the diet strictly. She wants to recover soon.

23. I went to the polyclinic. I had to get my certificate of health.


Запомните следующие предложения и словосочетания с инфинитивом:

I have nothing to read. Мне нечего читать.
She had nobody to speak with. Ей не с кем поговорить.
What is to be done? Что делать?
Who is to blame? Кто виноват?
I am not to blame. Я не виноват.
To see is to believe. Видеть – значит верить.
He was the first (the last) to come. Он пришел первым (последним).
It is out of the question to go there. Не может быть и речи о том, чтобы идти туда.
to cut a long story short короче говоря
to tell (you) the truth сказать (вам) по правде
to say nothing of не говоря уже о
to put it mildly мягко выражаясь
to say the least of it по меньшей мере
to begin with начнем с того


XIII . Translate into English:

1. Что делать в данном случае?

2. Начнем с того, что он серьёзно болен.

3. Чтобы читать по-английски в оригинале, вы должны хорошо знать язык.

4. Мягко выражаясь, он не прав.

5. Она была не виновата.

6. Ребенку не с кем играть.

7. Чтобы успеть на этот поезд, вы должны поторопиться.

8. Не может быть и речи о покупке компьютера в этом году.

9. Сказать по правде, мне это не нравится.

10. Им было нечего есть и негде было жить.

11. Мне не с кем обсудить эту проблему.

12. Кто виноват?

13. Короче говоря, он не следовал назначенному лечению.

14. В нашей группе Николай всегда первый задаёт вопросы.

15. Мне нечего выбирать: в воскресенье я остаюсь дома.

16. Вчера Аня пришла домой последней.

17. Мне некуда больше спешить, мне некого больше любить.


XIV. Translate into English

1. Он хочет стать хирургом.

2. Кажется, он сейчас оперирует.

3. Он рад, что прооперировал успешно.

4. Мы рады, что он оперирует в нашем хирургическом отделении уже много лет.

5. Наши больные рады, что их оперирует очень опытный хирург.

6. Я рада, что мне рассказали об этом.

7. Нужно было удалить аппендикс.

8. Я надеялась, что буду ассистировать ему.

9. Они надеялись принять участие в конференции.

10. Они сожалели, что не выиграли соревнование.

11. Они рады, что последовали моему совету.

12. Они могут хорошо учиться.

13. Эти миндалины должны быть удалены.

14. Его нужно госпитализировать.

15. Ее спросили последней.

16. Это больной, которого скоро будут оперировать.

17. Это проблема, которую надо решить как можно скорее.

18. Ломоносов был первым, кто применил русский язык в научных трудах.

19. Пирогов был первым хирургом, кто проводил остеопластические операции.

20. Вы достаточно умны, чтобы понять это.

21. Она вошла в перевязочную, чтобы снять мне швы.

22. Она старалась быть осторожной, чтобы не навредить больному.

23. Она шла медленно, чтобы не вызвать одышку.

24. Она надела теплое пальто, чтобы не простудиться.

25. Наши студенты посещают научные кружки, чтобы принимать участие в исследовательской работе.

26. Хорошо любить и быть любимым.

27. Я пришел, чтобы сказать вам об этом.


XV. Translate into English:

1. Он хочет стать хирургом.

2. Они надеялись, что выиграют соревнование.

3. Это проблема, которую надо решить как можно скорее.

4. Ломоносов был первым, кто применил русский язык в научных трудах.

5. Много читать значит много знать.

6. Он шел медленно, чтобы не упасть.

7. Они могут хорошо учиться.

8. Хорошо любить и быть любимым.

9. Я пришел, чтобы сказать вам об этом.

The Infinitive

The Infinitive is a non-finite form of a verb which has nominal and verbal traits.

Nominal characteristics:

  1. can be used as a subject (To go on like this was dangerous.)
  2. can be used as a predicative. (Her plan was now to drive to Bath during the


  1. can be used as an object (I have never learnt to read or write.)

Verbal characteristics:

1.can take a direct object (He began to feel some curiosity.)

2. can be modified by an adverb (I cannot write so quickly.)

3. has tense and aspect distinctions (expressed relatively)


The forms of the Infinitive
active passive
Indefinite (Simple) to write to be written Действие происходит одновременно с действием, выраженным глаголом в личной форме
Continuous to be writing --- Длительное действие происходит одновременно с действием, выраженным глаголом в личной форме
Perfect to have written to have been written Действие, предшествующее действию, выраженному глаголом в личной форме
Perfect Continuous to have been writing --- Длительное действие, предшествовавшее их происхождению одновременно с действием, выраженным глаголом в личной форме.
Active Indefinite I an glad to speak with you. Рад поговорить с вами (всегда радуюсь, когда говорю)
Continuous I am glad to be speaking with you. Рад, что сейчас разговариваю.
Perfect I am glad to have spoken with you. Рад, что поговорил.
Perfect Continuous I am glad to have been speaking with you. Рад, что уже давно (всё это время) разговариваю.
Passive Indefinite I am always glad to be told the news. Всегда рад, когда мне рассказывают новости.
Perfect I am glad to have been told the news. Рад, что мне рассказали.

The functions of the infinitive in the sentence:

  1. the infinitive as a subject- подлежащее

(To doubt, under the circumstances, is almost to insult. It is useless to discussthe question.)

  1. as a predicativeименная часть составного именного сказуемого

(My intention is to get into parliament.)

as a part of a predicative

(Mrs. Betty was not easy to find.)

  1. as a part of a compound verbal predicate – часть составного глагольного сказуемого

a). compound verbal modal predicate (after model expressions, verbs)

(The train was to leave at midnight.)

b). compound verbal aspect predicate (after verbs denoting beginning, duration of action)

(Imprisonment began to tell upon him.)

4. as an object - дополнение (after the verbs: to allow to beg

to order to request

to ask to instruct

to teach to implore (умолять, просить,

(He asked me to walk in.) молить)

  1. as a part of a complex object

(I’ve never seen you act this way before.)

  1. as an attribute - определение (modifies abstract/class nouns, indefinite pronouns, ordinal numerals, adjective “last”)

(I have not had time to examine this room yet.)

7. as an adverbial modifier - обстоятельствo

a). of purpose - цели (To pacify (успокаивать, умиротворять) her, I held the window wide open.)

b). of result – следствия (after adjectives modified by “too, enough”).

(Her eyes were sharp enough to look after her own interests.)

c). of comparison / manner – сравнения / образа действия (conjunctions “as if, as though”)

(She nervously moved her hand towards his lips as if to stop him.)

d). of attendant circumstances.- сопутствующие обстоятельства (She drew away, never to revisit these places.)

8. as parenthesesвводные слова/предложения

to cut a long story short to put it mildly/ plainly/ crudely

to tell the truth to speak frankly, to be quite frank

to be more exact to begin with

to say nothing of to crown it all

to say the least of it to make matters worse

so to speak strange/ needless to say, ...

(Well, to cut a long story short, they thought it would be more economical to live at the villa. To tell the truth, I’m sick and tired of this nonsense. To make mattersworse, it began to rain and soon we got wet to the skin.)

The Bare Infinitive (the infinitive without particle "to")

The Use :

1. after auxiliary verbs .We shall go there at once.

2. after modal verbs (except ought to… and have to…)

If one can't have what one loves, one must love what one has.

3. after verbs denoting sense perception(to hear, to see, to feel, to watch, to notice, to observe, …) I felt my heart beat as if at a great victory.

! Note: after the verbs “ to see, to hear, to feel” in the meaning of “знать,понимать”the to-Infinitive is used. I heard him to return to Moscow. (мы слышали: знаем, кто-то сказал нам об этом)

4. after the verb "to let".Let us be the best friends in the world.

5. after the verbs "to make", "to have" in the meaning of "заставлять".

What makes you think so?

6. after the verb "to know" (= to see, to observe)

I have so often known a change of medicine work wonders.

! Note : in the Passive Voice the to-Infinitive is used after the verbs of the above mentioned groups. He was heard to mention your name several times.

7. after the expressions: had better cannot but

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