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B. Обмін речовин

C. Сечоутворення

D. Менструація

E. Період статевого дозрівання

34. What does the term "menopause" mean?

A. Arrest of bleeding

B. End of the fertile period

C. Beginning of the fertile period

D. Bleeding

E. Menstruation

35. What is the synonym of the word

A. Metabolism

B. Death

C. Birth

D. Delivery

E. Contraception

36. Egg cell is a_______ .

A. oocyte

B. thrombocyte

C. lymphocyte

D. leukocyte

E. erythrocyte

37. A period of production of milk is__________ .

A. nutrition

B. respiration

C. pregnancy

D. lactation

E. digestion

38. The tubules in the testes that make sperm
cells are called_______ .

A. lacrimal

B. nasal

C. salivary

D. seminiferous

E. sexual

39. Ectopic pregnancy is________ .

A. pregnancy in the uterus

B. pregnancy in the fallopian tube

C. pregnancy which is not in the uterus

D. abortion

E. fertilization


40. A synonym of the word "sterilization" is

A. fertilization

B. castration

C. ejaculation

D. reproduction

E. inflammation

41. The science which studies poisons is____________ .

A. etiology

B. toxicology

C. gynecology

D. urology

E. dietology

42. What is the Ukrainian for "embryo"?

A. Плід

B. Запліднення

C. Безпліддя
E. Викидень

43. What is the main function of the
reproductive system?

A. To produce hormones

B. To control other systems

C. To reproduce human beings

D. To regulate metabolism

E. To show the difference between men
and women

44. The male pelvis differs from the female
pelvis in______ .

A. size and shape B.shape

C. color

D. number of bones

E. size

45. What develops during pregnancy in the
uterine wall?

A. Child

B. Embryo

C. Placenta

D. Fetus

E. Ovum

46. What is the term of pregnancy in women?

A. 30 weeks B.32 weeks

C. 36^40 weeks

D. 38-40 weeks

E. 40 weeks

47. What does the term "gestosis" mean?

A. Symptoms of pregnancy

B. Pathological condition in pregnancy

C. Normal condition in pregnancy

D. Abnormal symptoms

E. Normal symptoms

48. The action of the nurse in acute abdomen
of a patient.

A. To count the pulse

B. To take BP

C. To make injection

D. To advice to consult a doctor

E. Hospitalization

49. What must you do first in case of eclampsia?

A. To call in a doctor

B. To give oxygen

C. To make injection

D. To give medicine

E. To check BP

50. What is a synonym of the term "spermatozoon"?

A. Flower

B. Fruit

C. Vegetable

D. Semen

E. Leaf


II. Independent Work: Medical Plants

Exercise 1. Read the text.

Nature's Medicines

1. My own interest in herbs began many years ago when I worked on a ranch and noticed that many of the ranchers and their families often used various plants in the treatment of certain diseases. This made a deep impression on me and when I moved to the city I began searching for herb books and other related literature in order to learn as much as possible about use and history of medical plants. After reading and studying the available material I spent several years collecting rare. old. out-of-print medical herbals1 and made the acquaintance of many herbalists. I made several large albums containing the information learned from these herbalists and then began sorting the material and comparing it with the information contained in the current published materials and out-of-print medical herbals.

2. Many of our most useful drugs were known in antiquity long before the development of sciences. For example, the word "opium" comes from Greek. It is described as the dried material from unripe seed capsules of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferurn. The alkaloids of opium constitute about 25 % by weight, and there are over 20 of them. However, only four - morphine, codeine, papaverine, and noscapine (narcotine) - have medical uses. Opium relieves pain and promotes sleep and induces a general feeling of peace and well-being. Its psychological effects were known to the ancient Babylonians2 and it was used in Egypt. In ancient Greek and Roman cultures it was used as a sleeping drug.

In 1803 a German pharmacist, Sertiirner, isolated the chief alkaloid from opium and called it morphia (after Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams'). Serturner showed by experiments on dogs that most of the narcotic activity of opium depended upon morphine. It was the first alkaloid that was isolated from a plant. Shortly after strychnine, caffeine, atropine, etc. were separated as pure crystalline alkaloids.

3. The next widely used plant that was known to man 5000 years ago is garlic. At present it
is used in the treatment of many diseases in a pure state or as a compound or mixture.

Garlic was well known in ancient Egypt and thousands of slaves working on the great Cheops pyramid4 used garlic in food daily.

In Bulgaria there is a surprising number of people who reach the age of 100 and are still active and working. In that country it is a common practice5 among the ordinary people to eat garlic regulary.

Dioscorides, a Greek physician of the second century who accompanied the Roman armies6 as their official physician, prescribed garlic for all lung and intestinal diseases7 occuring among the soldiers. Hippocrates added that it was effective as a laxative and diuretic8.

During World War II, thousands of tons of garlic were bought by the British government for treating the wounds of soldiers.

Investigations by Russian scientists have made garlic oil so popular in their country that it is named Russian Penicillin.

Due to modern laboratories it can now be shown exactly how garlic affects microbes.

It is well known that garlic is therapeutically useful for the following purposes: it is a powerful agent in preventing diphtheria, typhus, tuberculosis, pneumonia; it is useful in all respiratory infections, especially in symptoms of a dry hacking cough4, in colds'", asthma and bronchitis and in many other cases. It is an excellent nerve tonic.



'out-of-print medical herbals - букіністична література про лікарські рослини 2ancient Babylonians - древні жителі Вавілону

'Morpheus ['mo:fios], Greek god of dreams - Морфей, у грецькій міфології бог сновидінь 4Cheops pyramid [ kkrjps'pirsmid] піраміда Xeonca 3it is a common practice - прийнято

6who accompanied the Roman armies - який супроводжував римські війська 7lung and intestinal diseases - легеневі та кишкові захворювання slaxative and diuretic - проносне та сечогінний засіб 'hacking cough ['haskirj'ko:f] частий, короткий кашель; покашлювання 10in colds - при застудах

Exercise 2. Complete the sentences with the necessary expressions according to the


1. The first part of the text deals with: a) the history of medicinal plants; b) the information contained in printed materials; c) the author's interest in the botany of medicinal plants.

2. The second part of the text deals with: a) the medicinal effects of some plants; b) the history of opium; c) the narcotic activity of opium.

3. The third part of the text deals with: a) the cultivation of garlic; b) the use of garlic with medicinal purposes; c) the effect of garlic in the treatment of certain diseases.

Exercise 3. Find completed sentences, finish uncompleted.

1. Dioscorides, a Greek physician of the second century who accompanied the Roman

2. Dioscorides, a Greek physician of the second century accompanied the Roman armies

3. Dioscorides, a Greek physician of the second century accompanied the Roman armies and was their official physician

4. Dioscorides, the official physician of the Roman armies, who accompanied them as their official physician prescribed


5. The British government bought for treating the wounds of soldiers

6. Investigations on garlic made by Russian scientists

Exercise 4. Answer the following questions. What is your point of view on these problems?

1. Is the idea of the text about the use of medicinal plants modern? 2. Is it news to you that many centuries ago garlic was used as a drug? 3. How long have people used opium alkaloids as a drug? 4. Are opium alkaloids always used as a drag at present? 5. Is opium poppy cultivated in our country?





Testing Times (Залік)_____________________________________________

Here are some examples of the Test. If you want, you can use the following material to tes: your students, or you can make up your own tests.

Variant 1

1. Name the main functions of the skeletal system.

2. Translate the clinical terms concerning the digestive system and explain the terms
in Ukrainian.

Ulcer, colitis, gastritis, esophagotomy, stomach.

3. Open the brackets and translate the sentences. Ask questions based on each one.

a) Neuron is at least the smallest (cell, sell) of nervous system.

b) The axon (carries, carriers) the impulse away from the cell body.

c) The doctor who treats nervous diseases is called (psychotherapeutist, neurologist).

4. Match the words and their translation.


ventricle перегородка
auricle клапан
valve шлуночок
septum передсердя
myocardium серцевий м'яз

5. Find non-finite forms of the verb, name them, translate the sentences.

- Smoking is harmful for your lungs.

- This surgeon was busy operating twice a week.

6. Translate into English.

a) У палаті не було хворих.

b) Потерпілого доставили в лікарню годину тому.

c) Мені подобається, як цей лікар обстежує хворих.

d) Це захворювання може виникнути у чоловіків після 50 років.

Variant 2

1. Name the main parts of the alimentary tract.

2. Translate the clinical terms concerning the respiratory system and explain the terms in Ukrainian.

Pneumonia, laryngitis, bronchitis, tongue, asthma.

3. Open the brackets and translate the sentences. Ask questions based on each

a) The cardiovascular system is the system of (blob, blood).

b) The (heard, heart) is the central organ of the circulatory system.

c) The blood is returned to the heart by means of (wines, veins).

4. Match the words and their translation:


scrotum чоловічий статевий член
spermatozoon калитка
prostata сперматозоїд
male urethra чоловічий сечівник
penis передміхурова залоза

5. Find non-finite forms of the verb, name them, translate the sentences.

- We looked at the operated patient.

- Treatment of injures or diseases by operating is the subject of surgery.

6. Translate into English.

a) Якщо студенти прослухають лекцію уважно, вони зможуть застосувати знання на

b) Мені набридло його слухати.

c) Велике коло кровообігу починається з лівого шлуночка і закінчується у правому

d) Лікар порадив хворому продовжити лікування.


Variant З

1. Name the main functions of the cardiovascular system.

2. Translate the clinical terms concerning the respiratory system and explain the
terms in Ukrainian.

Tracheitis, rhinitis, pleuritis, cancer of the lungs, pleura.

3. Open the brackets and translate the sentences. Ask questions based on each

a) The male reproductive system includes the scrotum, the prostate (gland, glance) and the penis.

в) The spermatozoon is the male sex (cell, sell).

c) The (scrotum, sack) keeps testicles outside of the male body.


4. Match the words and their translation.


pituitary щитовидна
thymus шишкоподібна
adrenal гіпофіз
pineal надниркова
thyroid загрудинна

5. Find non-finite forms of the verb, name them, translate the sentences.

- Operating is not a simple thing.

- While operating he found a disorder of her right kidney.

6. Translate into English.

a) Клітини формують органи, а органи об'єднуються у системи.

b) Лікар порадив пацієнту вживати ці ліки тричі на день.

c) Ці ліки однаково діють на нервову систему людини.

d) Він завжди хотів стати хірургом.


Variant 4

1. Name the main organs and units of the cardiovascular system.

2. Translate the clinical terms concerning the digestive system and explain the terms
in Ukrainian.

Dens, pharyngitis, dysenteria, proctitis, cancer of the stomach.

З.Ореп the brackets and translate the sentences. Ask questions based on each sentence.

a) The external reproductive organs are (breasts, breads) in women.

b) The organ of communication between the mother and the embryo is the (place,

c) The vulva includes the vulvar lips, (clitoris, clerical), the vaginal and urethral orifices.

4. Match the words and their translation.


expiration дихання
breathing вдих
inspiration видих
lungs носова порожнина
nasal cavity легені

5. Find non-finite forms of the verb, name them, translate the sentences.

- She saw the surgeon to enter the operating room.

- Dressing the wound of the patient the nurse was very attentive.

6. Translate into English.

a) Вона порадила хворому залишатися в ліжку протягом тижня.

b) Операція пройшла успішно.

c) Під дією шлункового соку і ферментів їжа розщеплюється.

d) Нирки - квасолеподібні органи, що розміщені за очеревиною.


Variant 5

1. Describe the structure and function of the heart.

2. Translate the clinical terms concerning the urinary system and explain the terms in Ukrainian.

Gout, pyelonephritis, goiter, glomerulonephritis, cancer of the kidneys.

3. Open the brackets and translate the sentences. Ask questions based on each

a) At first the air enters through the (nose, noose).

b) The pleura envelopes each (lane, lung).

c) (Air, Ear) reaches the larynx and then it goes through the trachea into the bronchial



4. Match the words and their translation.


oral cavity печінка
liver шлунок
stomach кишка
intestine слина
saliva ротова порожнина

5. Find non-finite forms of the verb, name them, translate into Ukrainian.

- It is possible to get AIDS by giving blood.

- The drug produces no side effects and can by all means be recommended.

6. Translate into English.

a) Артерії несуть кров від серця, а вени несуть її до серця.

b) Сечовина утворюється в печінці з амонію.

c) Клімат і навколишнє середовище - важливі фактори для здоров'я людини.

d) Під час проведення операцій хірургу допомагала медсестра.

Variant 6

1. Name all endocrine glands.

2. Translate the clinical terms concerning the nervous system and explain the terms in Ukrainian.

Amnesia, neuritis, radiculitis, anosmia, brain.

3. Open the brackets and translate the sentences. Ask questions based on each

a) The alimentary canal begins at the (mouse, mouth) and ends at the anus.

b) The (leaps, lips) form the opening to the oral cavity.

c) Through the (larynx, pharynx) and esophagus the food goes into the stomach.


4. Match the words and their translation.


joint зв'язка
cartilage кістка
bone череп
ligament суглоб
skull хрящ

5. Find non-finite forms of the verb, name them, translate the sentences.

-1 must have eaten something wrong.

- The operating nurse came into the operating room.

6. Translate into English.

a) Я вірю, що він хороший хірург.

b) У статті ми ознайомились із сучасними досягненнями медицини в облг.:
інфекційних захворювань.

c) Якби я був на твоєму місці, я проконсультувався б у лікаря-дерматолога.

d) Ми спостерігали за проведенням операції півтори години.


I. Read and translate the texts.

II. Read the words and word combinations to the texts.

Text 1. Hippocrates

Hippocrates was born in 460 or 459 B.C. on the small island of Cos. Hippocrates lived a long life and although the date of his death is not known with accuracy, it was probably 377 or 356 before our era.

He appeared to his contemporaries and to posterity surrounded by an aureole of glory. Aristotle called him "Hippocrates the Great"; Galen regarded him as "the wonderful inventor of all that is beautiful".

He was certainly not only the wisest and the greatest practitioner of his art, but also the most profound investigator and acute observer; he was the head of the most flourishing medical school of his age, who gathered about him many pupils and spread his teaching throughout the Greek world and even beyond.

Hippocrates freed medicine from superstition. He established the facts that disease was a natural process, that its symptoms were the reactions of the body to the disease and that the chief function of the physician was to aid the natural forces of the body.

Hippocrates was not the sole author of the hundred or more books which make up the collection, but that does not detract from their value as he certainly inspired them all. Quotations from the books, which are generally acknowledged to be most truly Hippocratic, illustrate what were the ideas and ideals, the methods and procedures which inspired the great physician.


to appear [з'різ] здаватися contemporary [кзп'tempsrsri] сучасник posterity [prjs'teriti] нащадки aureole ['злізиі] of glory - ореол слави wise [waiz] мудрий

profound investigator - глибокий дослідник

acute observer - проникливий спостерігач

to flourish - процвітати

beyond - за межами

superstition - забобон

sole author - єдиний, винятковий автор

quotation [kwsu'teijh] цитата

truly ['tru:li] точно; справді; імовірно


Text 2. A Scientist of Genius

Mykola Pyrohov was called a scientist of genius even in his lifetime. His career as a researcher, excellent surgeon and clinician was tempestuous. At 18 he graduated from Moscow University; at 22 he became a Doctor of Science; at 26 he was a Professor at Dorpat (now

Tartu) University, one of the largest in Europe; and at 30, he headed Russia's first surgery clinic. During his first 30 or so years in surgery he started a new trend in the study of human anatomy and physiology, based on fundamentally newest methods.

His major research works in this field contributed enormously to world science. To this day, Pyrohov's methods are among the basic methods in the study and teaching of anatomy.

Pyrohov's life was dedicated to people. He was a field surgeon during four wars (in the Caucasus in 1847, in the Crimea in 1854, in the Franco-Prussian war in 1870, and in the Russo-Turkish war in 1877), selflessly saving the lives of the wounded in the most difficult of conditions.

He in fact created a new medical science, field surgery, and suggested new, rational principles for the grouping, distribution and evacuation of the wounded. His work, "Fundamentals of Field Surgery" (1864), had soon become a reference book for field surgeons in all countries.

He formulated some of the most important principles of treating gunshot wounds, fractures, shock and wound infections, and developed the most ingenious methods of performing operations.

He was also the first to apply, on a large scale, plaster of Paris bandages in field condition:-(in Sevastopol, during the Crimean war), which was a revolution in field surgery. Almost 90 years later, during the Great Patriotic War, the Pyrohov plaster of Paris was still widely used during the heroic defence of Sevastopol, and on all other fronts, helping to save the lives of many thousands of soldiers.

Pyrohov had a phenomenal capacity for work, which enabled him to do a great deal in all spheres of surgery. He also developed classical, world-acknowledged methods of operations and treatment in ophthalmology, urology, and other fields. Many of those methods are applied even now, and one of them, the so-called Pyrohov amputation (a conservative-restorative operation on the extremities), marked the beginning of osteoplasty, giving a powerful impetus to the development of reconstructive surgery.

Genuinely compassionate with the sick and the wounded, Pyrohov did all his efforts to fine ways of relieving their suffering. He was among the first to realize the importance of general anesthesia and to apply narcosis, doing all he could towards its introduction into surgery. He firmly believed that narcosis not only relieved pain, but created the optimum conditions for keeping up the patient's vital functions during an operation.

Text 3. Robert Koch

Robert Koch was a prominent German bacteriologist, the founder of modern microbiology He was born in 1843, died in 1910. When Koch became a doctor he carried2 on mam experiments on mice3 in a small laboratory. In 1882 Koch discovered tuberculosis bacilli4. In his report made in the Berlin Physiological Society Koch described in detail the morpholog;. of tuberculosis bacilli and the ways to reveal5 them. Due to his discovery Koch became know r. all over the world. In 1883 Koch went to Egypt to study cholera6. At that time there was a widespread epidemic of cholera. Nobody knew the origin7 of this disease, there were not an;, protective measures8 against it.

The disease spread very rapidly from one place to another and thousands of healthy peopk died. But sometimes some people who were in a constant contact with the diseased person die not catch9 cholera. Koch carried out his investigations during the cholera epidemic in Egyp: and then in India.

In 1884 Koch published his book on cholera which included the investigations of his research work. From the intestines10 of the men with cholera Koch isolated a small comma-shaped" bacterium. He determined that these bacteria spread through drinking water. In 1905 Koch got the Nobel prize for his important scientific discoveries.


1 microbiology [.maikraubai'Dladji] мікробіологія

2 to carry out - проводити

3 mouse (pi. mice) - миша

4 bacilli [ba'silai] бацили

5 to reveal - виявляти

6 cholera [ 'kDbrsj холера

7 origin [Dridjin] походження

K protective measures - захисні заходи 9 to catch [kastf] захворіти, заразитися

intestines [in'testinz] кишки 11 comma-shaped - подібний за формою до коми

Text 4. Mechnikov

I.I. Mechnikov was born in 1845 in the village of Ivanivka, not far from the city of Kharkiv.

Since his early childhood I.I. Mechnikov had become interested in natural sciences; being a pupil of the sixth form he began to attend a course of university lectures delivered by the prominent physiologist of those days. Professor Schokov.

I.I. Mechnikov graduated from Kharkiv University when he was only 19 years old. While studying at the University he published several scientific articles in zoology. In 1870 at the age of 25 I.I. Mechnikov became one of the leading professors of Odessa University. But twelve years later, in 1882 he left the University demonstrating his protest against the tzarist ministry of education. He began his intense research work in his private laboratory. In 1887 I.I. Mechnikov went abroad and spent almost 30 years in Paris as a worker at the Pasteur Institute.

I.I. Mechnikov was the first to observe the phenomenon of phagocytosis in experiments with lower animals. Once I.I. Mechnikov was examining daphnia through the microscope. He observed bacteria in the form of a long stick enter the body of daphnia. At the same moment they were surrounded by the movable cells of the animal's body and destroyed by them.

1.1. Mechnikov took great interest in this phenomenon and began his regular observations, which enabled him to see clearly that every time the movable cells were not able to destroy the invading microbes daphnia became ill and finally perished. On the basis of his observations I.I. Mechnikov proved that white blood cells of the human being had the ability to pass through the walls of the capillary vessels and to destroy the invading microbes. I.I. Mechnikov called these cells phagocytes and the phenomenon itself phagocytosis. I.I. Mechnikov also determined what defence forces the human body had and why not every bacterial infection resulted in a disease.

In 1908 I.]. Mechnikov received the Nobel Prize for his investigations on phagocytosis.

I.I. Mechnikov performed considerable work on the effect of lactic acid on bacteria and its counteracting intestinal poisons and devoted many years of his life to the problem of aging (старіння).

I.I. Mechnikov died in 1916 at the age of 71.

Text 5. Prominent Scientists and Physicians of Ukraine

Well-known Ukrainian scientist O.M. Shumlyansky was the prominent anatomist-microscopist of the 18th century. He was the first who discribed the kidney texture1.

O.M. Shumlyansky was born in 1748 in the village Yakivtsi of Poltava region. His father was a Ukrainian Cossack-peasant. He graduated from the medical school in Petersburg and worked as a surgeon. Then he went abroad where he improved his education in the field of obstetrics and received his doctor's degree2.

After his returning to Russia O.M. Shumlyansky became a professor of the medical surgical school in Moscow. He was the author of many research3 works in the fields of surgery and obstetrics4.

Prominent surgeon and scientist M.V. Skliphosovsky (1836-1904) was born in Moldova and was brought up5 in a charity school6 in Odesa. After successful graduating from the University he wrote his thesis7 and became a professor of the Medical Academy in Petersburg. He was one of the organizers of the surgical school in Russia.

M.V. Skliphosovsky liked Ukraine and often visited Odesa and other Ukrainian cities. In 1871 he bought an estate8 in the outskirts9 of Poltava and rested there in summer. Then he removed to Poltava and worked as a physician at the regional hospital. It should be noted that he took care of poor people. He treated them free of charge and tried to create favorable conditions10 in the hospital. A new school was built for poor children on his initiative and his daughter was a teacher there.

In his estate he cultivated his orchard and worked there being in old age.

Outstanding clinicist and scientist of Ukraine M.D. Strazhesko (1876-1952) was an initiator in establishing Kyiv Institute of Clinical Medicine and worked there as an academician during a long period. Under the supervision11 of his teacher prof. VP. Obraztsov he was the first to differentiate and describe the clinical picture of myocardial infarction.

M.D. Strazhesko was the author of many classical works describing cardiac and abdominal diseases12. He used Pavlov's scientific ideas in his clinic. In his research work he used the scientific data from biochemistry, microbiology, physiology and other sciences. He paid much attention to the clinical research of his patients.

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