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Read the text and say what metal cutting is.




Cutting is one of the oldest arts practised in the stone age, but the cutting of metals was not found possible until the 18th century, and its detailed study started about a hundred years ago.

Now in every machine-shop you may find many machines for working metal parts, these cutting machines are generally called machine-tools and are extensively used in many branches of engineering. Fundamentally all machine-tools remove metal and can be divided into the following categories:

1. Turning machines (lathes).

2. Drilling machines.

3. Boring machines.

4. Milling machines.

5. Grinding machines.

Machining of large-volume production parts is best accomplished by screw machines. These machines can do turning, threading, facing, boring and many other operations. Machining can produce symmetrical shapes with smooth surfaces and dimensional accuracies not generally attainable by most fabrication methods.

Screw-machined parts are made from bar stock or tubing fed intermittently and automatically through rapidly rotating hollow spindles. The cutting tools are held on turrets and tool slides convenient to the cutting locations. Operations are controlled by cams or linkages that position the work, feed the tools, hold them in position for the proper time, and then retract the tools. Finished pieces are automatically separated from the raw stock and dropped into a container.

Bushings, bearings, nuts, bolts, studs, shafts and many other simple and complex shapes are among the thousands of products produced on screw machines. Screw machining is also used to finish shapes produced by other forming and shaping processes.

Most materials and their alloys can be machined – some with ease, others with difficulty. Machinability involves three factors: 1. Ease of chip removal. 2. Ease of obtaining a good surface finish. 3. Ease of obtaining good tool life.







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